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Designing for Transient Operations in Oil, Gas and Water Pipelines


This training course provides not only an introduction into the subject of Gas and Liquids Transients in pipeline operations but also provides an in depth understanding of the mathematical modelling required for the solution of  the wave equations.

The theme throughout this training course is operational Flow Assurance for Liquids and Gas piplelines.

Each day consists of lectures in the morning and a hands on workshop in the afternoon. The workshop allows the participants to appreciate the design process associated with pipeline operations. Various software will be available during the workshop to predict Surge and Gas Transients through pipelines .

Mathematical models are developed from first principles along with their solution techniques.

The participants will have a total appreciation of the methodology required to develop pipeline operating strategies for Gas and Liquids pipelines. and have an understanding of  the pipeline Flow Assurance issues and technology requirements.



Day 1 of the course will provide an understanding of Surge phenomena that occurs in pipeline systems.

After the course introduction a summary of the flow assurance issues are presented followed by Surge phenomena which is discussed and detailed explanation of mathematical models presented that can represent operational conditions as close to reality as possible. The method of  characteristics solution to the wave equations is developed with the use of a Surge software (provided to participants) is used to model operating cases.

Day 1 starts the hands on workshop in which the participants are split into two groups with the objective of designing the best pipeline operating strategy to cater for all anticipated operational scenarios.



Day 2 presents the basic design of pipelines and the Surge control techniques that are available to control surge pressures, including the pipeline design, selection of the correct valve as well as other equipment such as surge tanks and relief bi-pass.

The workshop continues with the evaluation of an oil pipeline case example  and its mitigation options as part of the pipeline operating strategy development.



Day 3 presents Gas pipeline transients. The equations for compressible fluids are developed in terms of both steady state and transient solutions using the method of characteristics.

Boundary condition that are typical of gas pipeline operations are discussed and their modelling techniques presented.

A special case of thermal transients that can occur in gas pipelines  is presented along with the appropriate energy equations formulated.

A second workshop is started that develops the range of operating cases in a gas pipeline transportation system.

Day 4 Introduces the subject of “Resonance” and it’s causes, prediction, analyses and mitigation.

Resonance resulting from oscillating flows presented in which the mathematical model is developed for a pipeline system. Solutions to the oscillating equations are presented. A computer software program will be presented to provide a solution.

The workshop concludes with presentations from both groups.



Day 5 presents the summary of the weeks training for both the surge for liquid pipelines transport as well as the gas transients transport.

A critical and constructive evaluation through question and answer session is presented with each group defending its logistics and development philosophy.

Any free time will be used in discussions of actual problems experience by the participants of the workshop.

The participants are presented with certificates of completing the training course for oil and gas transport.

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