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CO2 Capture, Pipeline transport,Storage and Usage. £150.

        Fluids in Motion Limited                                                     



CO2 Pipeline Transport

From Capture to Storage & Usage.  


Solutions to environmental issues.



The book is structured to provide the basics for transporting Carbon Dioxide (CO2) via pipelines from the Capture system to the storage facility or injection into reservoirs for enhanced oil recovery as well as usage of CO2 from storage. The CO2 capture technologies are discussed as is the alternative transport offshore, via ships and onshore. Detailed analysis requirements for CO2 transport via a pipeline system are undertaken as is the storage or injection facility. An in-depth understanding of the issues to be considered in the development, design and operations of these pipelines is undertaken.

The Big Picture of the Oil & Gas Industry and its outlook in view to the CO2 environmental issues currently faced by humanity is presented. Questions such as:

 “How did we get here”, the consequences and potential solutions,

“The need to decarbonize” to a Zero Carbon footprint.

“The application of ESG” (Environmental, Social and Governance) strategies for businesses.

“What is the outlook for Carbon Capture Storage and Usage.”

“Worldwide CCUS projects” completed, in progress and planned.

“CO2 Capture methods, uses and storage characteristics requirements for the geology,

CO2 sequestration and storage reservoirs are addressed, and an attempt is made to answer these questions.

Most of this book discusses transport of CO2 through the pipeline system along with the boundaries (capture system and the storage and usage). The pipeline design encapsulates the variation of CO2 fluid flow regime phase changes with operating conditions.  Flow assurance issues are highlighted, and mitigation techniques proposed. CO2 fluids phase behaviour is established including the impact of variations in impurities in the fluid composition due to the capture system as well as imports into a network system. The commercially available simulation models for PVT such as the Peng Robinson equation of state are highlighted.  Explanation of multiphase modelling / simulation tools and methodology and theory for both empirical and mechanistic mathematics are presented. Slugging models are discussed using statistical based steady state models that include mean and 99.9 percentile predictions as compared to a totally mechanistic based approach using transient based operational models such as Olga. The prediction, control, management, and mitigation of hydrates, slugging and scales are presented. Erosion and Corrosion principles are presented using mathematical models of Selama and Venkatesh and DeWard Milliams and chemical Inhibition techniques for flow assurance issues discussed.


Flow Assurance is defined, fluids transport discussed, economics considered, and capture and host facilities options presented. Flow Assurance issues that are confronted in the development of CO2 transport are evaluated in detail as well as methods presented to assist in the design and operations of systems such as injection wells, manifolds, flow lines, pipelines and risers for subsea and onshore injection and operation for the life of the CO2 transport system. The operations encompass; steady state, Shut down, restart, depressurization and CO2 demand variations. The impact on the pipeline and host facility are presented and an outline philosophy discussed.  For the pipeline, thermal management systems are presented to assess CO2 phase behavior in addition to emerging technologies for CO2 capture presented. The impact on the pipeline and host facility are evaluated and an outline operational philosophy developed. 


Two chapters are dedicated on practical case studies in the development of CO2 pipeline transport for onshore and offshore storage with associated flow assurance methods developed. These case studies illustrate the application of flow assurance solution methods as guidance for practicing engineers, project managers and investment institutions or individuals that are involved directly or indirectly in the transport of CO2 to caverns, oil and gas fields either onshore or offshore.  The complexities of multiphase flow are discussed along with the evaluation of each of the main flow assurance issues that are required for the design and operation of the transportation systems. A chapter is dedicated to reducing the environmental impact of releasing hydrocarbons into the atmosphere. A summary of the project risks, hazards and safety requirements for the concepts selected are presented.


It is hoped that the readers of this book enjoy the scientific and engineering methodologies presented in the required transport of CO2 flow assurance philosophies for the safe, risk free and economic exploitation of CO2 capture, storage and usage and the associated environmental pollution reductions. Further that, young engineers can take some of the ideas presented and develop new innovations to take the energy sector well into the 21st century.     

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