Flow Assurance For Oil-Gas Fields Production Transport £138

 

Flow Assurance is becoming one of the most critical elements in the design and operation of oil and gas field developments. This is because the flow assurance issues such as hydrates, wax and slugging etc. have greater potential to occur in deepwater and long distance tie-backs with the necessity to avoid flow path blockages, ensure the integrity of the production system and avoid unstable operating conditions. This requires consideration of these issues in greater levels of detail to enable proper control and management strategies to be developed. Numerous flow assurance mitigation technologies are being developed by oil operating, as well as contracting companies.

The intention of this book is many fold but with the prime objective of providing a reference to the subject of Flow Assurance associated with the exploitation of oil and gas fields. It is hoped that the book also provides an understanding of the fundamentals as well as the state of the current art in Flow Assurance analyses associated with the design and operations of oil and gas fields in 2011. Where it has not been possible to provide detailed solution techniques due to the complexity of the mathematics that require iterative computational techniques, simplified equations have been identified to enable a first order estimate solutions. This book can be used by both graduate and post graduate students, practising process engineers and engineers in other disciplines that require an understanding of Flow Assurance, associated with reservoir oil and gas production, as well as lecturers in advanced study courses associated with academic training.

This book is structured to provide:

  • Flow Assurance for transporting reservoir production fluids between the reservoir and the host processing facility as well as providing the basics of oil and gas reservoirs and host processing facilities.

  • Flow Assurance is defined,

  • Reservoir production fluids discussed,

  • Economics considered and host processing facilities options presented.

  • Flow Assurance issues that are confronted in the development of oil and gas reservoirs/fields are evaluated in detail as well as methods presented to assist in the design and operations of systems such as:

  • Production wells, manifolds, flow lines, pipelines and risers for subsea fields as well as onshore field development and operation for the life of these fields.

  • A practical case study in the development of flow assurance methods for an oil field is also included in this book. It is hoped that this case study illustrates the application of flow assurance solution methods as guidance for practicing engineers, project managers and investment institutions or individuals that are involved directly or indirectly in the exploitation of oil and gas fields either onshore or offshore.

  • The complexities of multiphase flow have been discussed along with the evaluation of each of the main flow assurance issues that are required for the design and operation of the transportation systems.

  • Subsea technologies that provide the economic value for offshore reservoir exploitation have been summarised.

  • A chapter dedicated to reducing the environmental impact of releasing hydrocarbons into the atmosphere.

 

It is hoped that the readers of this book enjoy the scientific and engineering methodologies presented in the required flow assurance philosophies for the safe and economic exploitation of oil and gas fields and the associated environmental pollution reductions. Further that, young engineers can take some of the ideas presented and develop new innovations to take the energy sector well into the 21st century.


CONTENTS

SectionPage

Flow Assurance0

From Reservoir to Host Processing Facility.0

Preface2

Copyright & Warranty3

Contents4

Chapter 110

1.INTRODUCTION10

1.1Fluids in Motion Limited (FIM):11

Chapter 214

2.0FLOW ASSURANCE, INDUSTRY OUTLOOK, ECONOMICS AND ENVIRONMENT14

2.1Common Flow Assurance Definitions14

2.2Industry Outlook15

2.3Economics16

2.3.1Local Infra-structure16

2.3.2Water Depth16

2.3.3Tie-Back Distance16

2.3.4Capital and Operating expenditure Costs16

2.4The Environmental Implications of Oil Production18

Chapter 320

3FROM RESERVOIR……20

3.1Oil Formation20

3.1Finding the Oil21

3.3Traps23

3.4Reservoir Appraisal24

3.5Drive Mechanisms24

3.6Predicting Reservoir Fluids Characteristics25

3.7Reservoir Fluid Types25

3.8Fluids Characterization26

Chapter 427

4—— TO HOST PROCESSING FACILITY27

4.1Conventional Shallow Water Platform27

4.2Tension Leg Platforms28

4.3The SPAR Platform29

4.4Floating Production, Storage and Offshore Loading.30

4.5Summary of Platform Characteristics.30

Chapter 5 32

5TRANSPORTATION FLOW ASSURANCE ISSUES 32

5.1Introduction:32

5.2Flow Assurance Issues:33

5.2.1Hydrates33

5.2.2Wax34

5.2.3Asphaltenes35

5.2.4Napthanates36

5.2.5Slugging36

5.2.6Corrosion37

5.2.7Erosion37

5.2.8Emulsions38

5.2.9Scales39

Chapter 6 41

6COMPLEXITIES OF MULTIPHASE FLOW41

6.1Introduction41

6.2Mathematical Model- Steady State Flow43

6.2.1One Dimensional Steady State Thermal Balance Equations:46

6.2.2One Dimensional Pipeline Cool Down:51

6.2.3One Dimensional Unsteady State Conduction:55

6.2.4Joule-Thompson Temperature Effects.58

6.2.5Multiphase Flow Correlations61

6.2.6Gas Properties:64

6.2.7Compositional Models and the Equations of State:65

6.2.8Thermal Heat Transfer69

6.3Transient State Mechanistic Models:72

6.3.1Development of Mechanistic Models:73

6.4Sensitivity of Multiphase parameters:81

6.5Uncertainties in Data & Limitations of Design Tools84

6.5.1Fluid Properties:85

6.5.2Reservoir Behaviour:85

6.5.3Well and Environmental Data:85

6.5.4Predictive Techniques:85

6.6Field Data Acquisition86

6.6.1Data Transmission / Collection:87

6.6.2Data Analysis:87

6.6.3Validation:87

6.6.4Further Efforts Required in R&D87

6.7Integrated Thermo-Hydraulics88

6.8Surge Analysis89

6.9Non- Newtonian Fluid Flow.97

Chapter 7 100

7.0EVALUATING FLOW ASSURANCE 100

7.1Hydrates100

7.1.1Preventing Hydrates Through Operational Philosophies102

7.1.2Benefits of Laboratory Tests104

7.2Wax106

7.3Asphaltenes110

7.4Naphthenates111

7.5Slugging113

7.6Scales115

7.7Emulsions116

7.8Corrosion118

7.9Erosion122

7.10Computational Fluid Analysis for Subsea Production Systems.127

Chapter 8 129

8OFFSHORE FIELD DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONS:129

8.1Introduction129

8.2Design Flexibility130

8.3Overcoming Operational Issues130

8.4Applying Operational Constraints133

8.5Reservoir Model134

8.6Subsea Production System140

8.7Subsea Production Equipment141

8.8Flowlines and Pipelines144

8.9Risers145

8.10Separators / Slug Catchers147

8.11Gas Release into the Atmosphere:152

8.11.1Gas Flare Design:153

8.11.2Gas Release and Dispersion.159

Chapter 9 166

9CASE STUDY: Concept Offshore Field Development:166

9.1Field Development Data:166

9.2Sizing of Pipeline and Risers.170

9.3Production Profiles Estimate.171

9.4Selection of Technology for the Development.172

9.5Flow Assurance Challenges and their Mitigation.173

9.6Pipeline Cool Down:190

9.7Pipeline Riser Warm-Up192

9.8Hot Oil Flushing and Surge Analysis.193

9.9Pipeline Depressurisation.195

9.10Flow Assurance Management.196

9.10.1Flow Assurance Strategy196

9.10.2Flow Assurance Management Plan197

Chapter 10209

10NEW TECHNOLOGIES:209

10.1Potential Flow Assurance Solution Options:209

10.2Subsea Technologies:210

10.3Past Use Of Technologies:211

10.4Existing Subsea Technologies:212

10.5Future Subsea Technology Deployment Potential:213

10.6Subsea Technology Benefits:213

10.7Gas to Liquids Absorption Technology (GTLA):214

10.7.1Hydrates with GLTA:214

10.7.2Slugging with GTLA:214

10.7.3Pipeline Corrosion with GTLA:215

10.7.4Wax Deposition with GTLA:216

10.7.5Erosion with GTLA:217

10.7.6Scaling Potential with GTLA:217

10.7.7Emulsions Control with GTLA:217

10.7.8Operational Benefits of GTLA:217

10.7.9Cost Benefits of GTLA Vs Multiphase Production:218

10.8Other Flow Assurance Technologies:219

10.8.1Slug Control:219

10.8.2Subsea Processing:221

10.8.3VASPS- Vertical Annular Separation and Pumping System:224

10.8.4Other Subsea Separation and Pumping System:224

10.8.3Subsea Multiphase Pumping:225

10.8.4Subsea Multiphase Metering:227

10.8.5Subsea SWAG:228

10.8.6Subsea SINTEF-BP Cold Flow System:228

10.8.7Subsea Raw Water Injection Systems:229

10.8.8Technology Flow Assurance Versus Benefit Map:230

Chapter 11 232

11.0 GAS OPTIONS FOR OFFSHORE FIELDS232

11.1General:232

11.2Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)233

11.3Liquefied Natural Gas235

11.4Gas to Liquids or GTL235

11.5Stranded gas236

11.5Technological Challenges:238

11.6Current Industry Options to Minimize Gas Flaring238

11.7Other Technologies for Gas Handling:239

11.7.1Flare Gas Recovery (FGR)240

11.7.2Gas to Wire (Power Generation):241

11.7.3Compact GTL Reformers:242

11.7.4Compact GTL:242

11.8New FIM Zero Gas Flare Concepts243

11.8.1Gas Absorption, Pumping and Transport:244

11.8.2Gas Absorption and Stored Transport via a Vessel:245

11.9Options for Small Fields Offshore245

11.10Options for Larger Fields Offshore245

11.11Ranking of Zero Gas Flare Technologies246

11.12Summary of Flared Gas Options247

Chapter 12250

12.0 SOFTWARE250

12.1Field Options Program:251

12.2Gas Release:255

12.3Flare Stack:257

12.4LiqNet:259

12.5GasNet:263

12.6TranGas:270

12.6Quick Surge:273

REFERENCES:279

INDEX:284

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